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Exam Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2 v3.0)
Number 200-105
File Name Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2 v3-0).200-105.1e.68q.vcex
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Posted July 24, 2018
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Demo Questions

Question 1

Your network consists of one HSRP group of six routers. All of the routers are functioning properly. The network has been stable for several days. In which HSRP state are most of the routers?

  • A: Learn
  • B: Listen
  • C: Standby
  • D: Active

Correct Answer: B

If all of the routers in the Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) group are functioning properly, then most of the routers in the group are in the listen state. Four routers will be in the listen state, one router will be in the standby state, and one router will be in the active state. 
HSRP is used by a group of routers to create the appearance of a virtual router with which end stations can communicate in the event that the default gateway becomes unavailable. The active router is responsible for forwarding packets that are sent to the virtual router. The standby router is responsible for assuming the role of active router should the active router fail or become unavailable. All other HSRP routers monitor the hello messages sent by the active and standby routers. Should the active and standby routers both become unavailable, the HSRP router with the highest priority is elected to become the active router by default. For routers with equal priority values, the router with the highest IP address becomes the active router. 
HSRP routers can exist in one of the following six states:
- Initial 
- Learn 
- Listen 
- Speak 
- Standby 
- Active 
All HSRP routers start in the initial state. A router in the learn state is waiting for its first hello message from the active router so that it can learn the virtual router's IP address. When the hello message is received and the virtual router's IP address is discovered, the HSRP router is in the listen state. A router in the listen state listens for hello messages from the active and standby routers. If an election for a new active router and a new standby router is required, then an HSRP router will enter the speak state and begin transmitting hello messages. The standby state is reserved for the standby router, and the active state is reserved for the active router. Only routers in speak, standby, and active states will transmit hello packets. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/hot-standby-router-protocol-hsrp/9234-hsrpguidetoc.html
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/index.html




Question 2

Click and drag the RSTP port state on the left to its matching equivalent STP role, on the right. RSTP port states may be used more than once, and it may not be necessary to use all RSTP port states. 

Correct Answer: Exam simulator is required

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) was developed to reduce the high convergence times required in Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), and introduces the alternate port and backup port. RSTP is an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard, 802.1w, and is interoperable with 802.1d (STP). There are fewer transitional states used in RSTP than STP. In RSTP, there are only Forwarding, Learning, and Discarding. The three states are defined as follows:
- Forwarding - the state of all root ports and designated ports. The port is passing traffic.  
- Learning - the state of a port that was formerly discarding but due to a change in the topology (link down) it has transitioned to learn its new state. The port could return to discarding or move to forwarding depending on the new topology needs  
- Discarding - the state of all non-root and non- designated ports. The port is not passing traffic to prevent potential switching loops. 
RSTP can reconfigure the spanning tree in less than a second, compared to the 50 seconds that STP may take. This is achieved through having fewer transition states, the use of alternate and backup ports, and faster transitions.  
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/24062-146.html
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/24062-146.html




Question 3

What is the significance of the 1 in the following configuration? 
router(config)# router eigrp 1

  • A: It is the process ID for EIGRP and is locally significant to this router.
  • B: It is the process ID for EIGRP and must be the same on all EIGRP routers.
  • C: It is the AS number for EIGRP and is locally significant to this router.
  • D: It is the AS number for EIGRP and must be the same on all EIGRP routers.

Correct Answer: D

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) configuration requires the specification of an Autonomous System (AS) number with the router eigrp command. Any number can be chosen, but it must match on all EIGRP routers in the domain. This value may appear to be is similar to one used in enabling OSPF, which demands a process ID number but that value is locally significant to each router and need not match on each router.  
The syntax of this command is router eigrp [autonomous-system]. Therefore, the 1 in the example indicates an Autonomous System (AS) number, not a process ID.  
The Autonomous System (AS) number is not locally significant to each router, and must match on all EIGRP routers.




Question 4

You are in the process of verifying the operation of your core switches, which are using HSRP. One core switch was left with the default priority; the other was given a lower priority to make it the standby switch. The command show standby brief was executed on one of the switches. Output of the command is shown below:

   
What does this output mean? (Choose all that apply.)

  • A: this switch is using the default priority
  • B: this switch is the active HSRP switch
  • C: the HSRP devices are up and functioning correctly
  • D: the switch intended to be the active switch has failed and this switch has taken over
  • E: preemption is enabled for the group

Correct Answer: BDE

The output in the exhibit indicates that this switch is the active HSRP switch, the switch intended to be the active switch has failed, and that preemption is enabled for the group.  
This is the active switch because Active is the State listed for each interface that is a member of HSRP. 
The question states that the switch that was intended to be the standby switch was given a priority lower than the default. The default priority is 100, so this is not the switch intended to be the active switch. This information indicates that the switch intended to be the active switch has failed.  
Preemption is enabled, as indicated by the P following the priority value in line 2. Since preemption is enabled, the switch with the priority of 100 is still down. When that switch is corrected and joins the group again, it will take over as active. 
The HSRP group is still providing access for users, but not all devices are functioning properly. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/ipapp/command/reference/iap_s4.html




Question 5

Which command enables HSRP on an interface?

  • A: hsrp
  • B: standby ip
  • C: standby mode hsrp
  • D: switchport mode hsrp

Correct Answer: B

The standby ip interface configuration command enables Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP). The syntax for this command is as follows: 
switch(config-if)# standby group-number ip ip-address 
The group-number argument specifies the HSRP group number on the interface. You do not need to enter a group number if there is only one HSRP group. 
At least one interface on one of the routers in the group must be configured with the virtual IP address of the group. It is optional on all other interfaces on the other routers, which can learn the address through the hellos sent among the group. 
A complete HSRP configuration is shown below with an explanation of each command. 
RouterA (config) #interface Fa0/1  
RouterA (config-if) # ip address 192.168.5.6 255.255.255.0  
RouterA (config-if) # standby 2 ip 192.168.5.10                
RourerA(config-if) # standby 2 priority 150                
RouterA (config-if) #standby 2 Preempt           
RouterA(config-if) #standby 2 track interface fa0/2 
-Line 1 specifies the interface  
-Line 2 addresses the interface  
-Line 3 specifies the HSRP group number and the virtual IP address  
-Line 4 sets the HSRP priority  
-Line 5 allows the router to take the active role if its priority becomes higher than that of the active router  
In the above, the router is tracking its own Fa0/2 interface. If that interface goes down it will reduce its priority by 10 (this is the default decrement when not specified). The new value would be 140 if that happened. To specify a decrement value, add it to the track command, as in this example: track interface Fa0/2 20.
When you configure routers to be part of an HSRP group, they listen for the HSRP MAC address for that group as well as their own burned-in MAC addresses.  
HSRP uses the following MAC address: 
0000.0c07.ac** (where ** is the HSRP group number) 
The switchport mode interface configuration command will configure the VLAN membership mode of a port. It is not used to enable HSRP. 
The options standby mode hsrp and hsrp are not valid commands. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/hot-standby-router-protocol-hsrp/9234-hsrpguidetoc.html
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/index.html




Question 6

Which of the following technologies allows a switch port to immediately transition to a forwarding state?

  • A: Rapid STP
  • B: PortFast
  • C: VTP
  • D: CDP

Correct Answer: B

PortFast is a technology that allows a switch port connected to an end node such as a workstation, server, or printer to bypass the normal Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) convergence process. When a new device is powered up on a switch port, it will immediately transition to a forwarding state.  
NOTE: PortFast should only be used on access ports. It should not be used on trunk ports or on ports that connect to hubs, routers and other switches. 
Rapid STP (RSTP) is a new STP standard that provides faster convergence than the original 802.1d STP. RSTP supports PortFast, but it must be configured explicitly. 
The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) does not allow for immediate transition to a forwarding state. VTP is used to synchronize VLAN databases between switches, and has no effect on STP. 
The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) does not allow for immediate transition to a forwarding state. CDP is used to verify connectivity and document directly connected Cisco devices. CDP is not related to STP. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/24062-146.html




Question 7

Which switch will be selected as the root bridge by Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)?

  • A: switch with lowest bridge ID
  • B: switch with lowest IP address
  • C: switch with lowest Media Access Control (MAC) address
  • D: switch with lowest number of root ports

Correct Answer: A

STP will use elections to arrive at a fully converged state that will ensure a switching loop free network. It will select:
- The root bridge  
- The root port on each non-root bridge  
- Designated ports on any shared segments with no direct connection to the root bridge.  
The switch with the lowest bridge ID will be selected as the root bridge by STP. A bridge ID has two components: the priority number and the MAC address. On Cisco devices, the priority number may range from 0 to 65535. The priority number constitutes the most significant bits of the bridge ID. If you want to ensure that a particular switch in a topology always becomes a root bridge, regardless of the MAC address, you can set the priority number of that switch to the lowest value among all switches in the topology. 
Since the selection of the root bridge influences all other decisions and thus the single loop free path for each VLAN, the selection and location of the root bridge is important and best not left to chance. Once you have determined the best switch for the role of root bridge, you can ensure its election by lowering its bridge priority. 
It is best for the root bridge to be centrally located with respect to the clients and the servers that generate the most traffic on the VLAN. For example, in the diagram below, if most of the traffic travels between the clients and the servers on VLAN 20, the best choice for the root bridge for VLAN 20 would be SwitchD. SwitchD is centrally located between the clients on VLAN 20 and the servers on VLAN 20.  
  

   
To illustrate the type of inefficient traffic that could occur when care is not given to the location of the root bridge, consider the diagram above and assume that Switch B was chosen the root bridge. Next, assume that traffic needs to go from VLAN 10 connected to Switch C to VLAN 10 connected to Switch A. The shortest path would be from Switch C to Switch A. However, because the only port that is forwarding on Switch C is the port that leads to the root bridge (Switch B), then the actual path would be from Switch C, to Switch B, to Switch E, and then to Switch A.  
By default, the priority number of all Cisco switches is configured to a value of 32768. For example, consider three switches in network topology with the following MAC addresses and the same default priority number:
0000.0B02.AAAA 
0000.0B02.BBBB 
0000.0B02.CCCC 
The switch with the lowest MAC address, 0000.0B02.AAAA, will become the root bridge. 
The switch with the lowest IP address will not be selected as the root bridge by STP because the IP address of the switch does not influence the selection of the root bridge. 
The switch with the lowest MAC address will not be selected as the root bridge by STP. A combination of priority number and MAC address determines the selection of the root bridge. The MAC address will determine the root bridge only if there is a tie for the switch with the lowest priority number. 
The switch with the lowest number of root ports will not be selected as the root bridge by STP. Root ports are the interfaces on non-root bridges. On a non-root bridge, the least-root-cost interface is known as a root port. Therefore, the switch having the fewest root ports is not the root bridge.  
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/ios/12-2SX/configuration/guide/book/port_sec.html
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/7600/ios/12-2SXF/configuration/guide/swcg/spantree.html




Question 8

You are the Cisco administrator for Verigon Incorporated. The given exhibit displays some of the devices in the network. (Click the Exhibit(s) button.) Workstation A can communicate with Workstation C but cannot communicate with Workstation B.  

   
What is the problem?

  • A: Workstation B has an incorrect default gateway
  • B: Workstation A has an incorrect subnet mask
  • C: Workstation A has an incorrect default gateway
  • D: Workstation B has an incorrect subnet mask

Correct Answer: C

Workstation A has an incorrect default gateway. To communicate with remote computers or those computers outside of its own subnet, a computer must have the address of the nearest router interface as its default gateway. In this case, the default gateway of Workstation A should be 192.168.10.5/24, which is the Serial0 address of Router A. The diagram shows that it is instead configured as 192.168.10.4/24. This will not cause a problem for Workstation A to communicate with Workstation C, but it will make communication with remote subnets impossible. 
Workstation B does not have an incorrect default gateway. Its nearest router interface is 10.0.0.1/8, which is the configuration of its default gateway. 
Workstation A does not have an incorrect subnet mask. The mask used by Workstation C and the router interface of Router A, which are in the same subnet, is /24, or 255.255.255.0, which is also the subnet mask used by Workstation A. 
Workstation B does not have an incorrect subnet mask. Since the subnet mask of the router interface that is nearest to Workstation B is /8, or 255.0.0.0, then Workstation B also should have an 8 bit mask. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/routing-information-protocol-rip/13788-3.html
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/dynamic-address-allocation-resolution/13711-40.html
CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide (Cisco Press, ISBN 1-58720-181-X), Appendices D, E and H: Subnetting.




Question 9

Which of the following statements is NOT true of Cisco ACI?

  • A: It is a comprehensive SDN architecture.
  • B: It uses Cisco APIC as the central management system.
  • C: It provides policy driven automation support.
  • D: It decreases network visibility.

Correct Answer: D

The Cisco ACI does not decrease network visibility. On the contrary, the Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) increases network visibility. It is a policy-driven automaton solution that can keep the network inventory up-to-date automatically whenever a new device is added and provide a graphic representation at all times. 
ACI is a comprehensive SDN architecture that integrates physical and virtual environments under one policy model. It uses the Cisco Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC) as the central management system.  
It provides policy driven automation support through a business-relevant application policy language. 
References:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/aci/apic/sw/1-x/aci-fundamentals/b_ACI-Fundamentals/b_ACI-Fundamentals_chapter_010000.html




Question 10

Which technique is used to stop routing loops by preventing route update information from being sent back over the interface on which it arrived?

  • A: Holddown timer
  • B: Triggered updates
  • C: Route poisoning
  • D: Split horizon
  • E: Maximum hop count

Correct Answer: D

Split horizon stops routing loops by preventing route update information from being sent back over the interface on which it arrived. Routing loops can occur due to slow convergence and inconsistent routing tables, and can cause excessive use of bandwidth or even complete network failure. Split horizon can prevent routing loops between adjacent routers. 
Holddown timers prevent regular update messages from reinstating a route that is unstable. The holddown timer places the route in a suspended, or "possibly down" state in the routing table, and regular update messages regarding this route will be ignored until the timer expires.  
Triggered updates are sent as soon as a change in network topology is discovered, as opposed to waiting until the next regular update interval (every 30 seconds in RIP networks). This speeds convergence and helps prevent problems caused by outdated information.  
Route poisoning "poisons" a failed route by increasing its cost to infinity (16 hops, if using RIP). Route poisoning is combined with triggered updates to ensure fast convergence in the event of a network change. 
References:
http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=3










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