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Exam CCIE Routing and Switching Written Exam v5.1
Number 400-101
File Name Cisco.PracticeDumps.400-101.2017-11-11.1e.470q.vcex
Size 12.35 Mb
Posted November 11, 2017
Downloads 39
Download Cisco.PracticeDumps.400-101.2017-11-11.1e.470q.vcex

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Demo Questions

Question 1

A TCP/IP host is able to transmit small amounts of data (typically less than 1500 bytes), but attempts to transmit larger amounts of data hang and then time out. 
What is the cause of this problem?

  • A: A link is flapping between two intermediate devices.
  • B: The processor of an intermediate router is averaging 90 percent utilization.
  • C: A port on the switch that is connected to the TCP/IP host is duplicating traffic and sending it to a port that has a sniffer attached.
  • D: There is a PMTUD failure in the network path.

Correct Answer: D

Sometimes, over some IP paths, a TCP/IP node can send small amounts of data (typically less than 1500 bytes) with no difficulty, but transmission attempts with larger amounts of data hang, then time out. Often this is observed as a unidirectional problem in that large data transfers succeed in one direction but fail in the other direction. This problem is likely caused by the TCP MSS value, PMTUD failure, different LAN media types, or defective links. ReferencE. networking/13709-38.html

Question 2

Refer to the exhibit. 


ICMP Echo requests from host A are not reaching the intended destination on host B. What is the problem?

  • A: The ICMP payload is malformed.
  • B: The ICMP Identifier (BE) is invalid.
  • C: The negotiation of the connection failed.
  • D: The packet is dropped at the next hop.
  • E: The link is congested.

Correct Answer: D

Here we see that the Time to Live (TTL) value of the packet is one, so it will be forwarded to the next hop router, but then dropped because the TTL value will be 0 at the next hop.

Question 3

Refer to the exhibit. 


Which statement is true?

  • A: It is impossible for the destination interface to equal the source interface.
  • B: NAT on a stick is performed on interface Et0/0.
  • C: There is a potential routing loop.
  • D: This output represents a UDP flow or a TCP flow.

Correct Answer: C

In this example we see that the source interface and destination interface are the same (Et0/0). Typically this is seen when there is a routing loop for the destination IP address.

Question 4

Which congestion-avoidance or congestion-management technique can cause global synchronization?

  • A: Tail drop
  • B: Random early detection
  • C: Weighted random early detection
  • D: Weighted fair queuing

Correct Answer: A

Tail Drop 
Tail drop treats all traffic equally and does not differentiate between classes of service. Queues fill during periods of congestion. When the output queue is full and tail drop is in effect, packets are dropped until the congestion is eliminated and the queue is no longer full. 
Weighted Random Early Detection 
WRED avoids the globalization problems that occur when tail drop is used as the congestion avoidance mechanism on the router. Global synchronization occurs as waves of congestion crest only to be followed by troughs during which the transmission link is not fully utilized. Global synchronization of TCP hosts, for example, can occur because packets are dropped all at once. Global synchronization manifests when multiple TCP hosts reduce their transmission rates in response to packet dropping, then increase their transmission rates once again when the congestion is reduced. 

Question 5

Which two options are reasons for TCP starvation? (Choose two.)

  • A: The use of tail drop
  • B: The use of WRED
  • C: Mixing TCP and UDP traffic in the same traffic class
  • D: The use of TCP congestion control

Correct Answer: CD

It is a general best practice to not mix TCP-based traffic with UDP-based traffic (especially Streaming- Video) within a single service-provider class because of the behaviors of these protocols during periods of congestion. Specifically, TCP transmitters throttle back flows when drops are detected. Although some UDP applications have application-level windowing, flow control, and retransmission capabilities, most UDP transmitters are completely oblivious to drops and, thus, never lower transmission rates because of dropping. 
When TCP flows are combined with UDP flows within a single service-provider class and the class experiences congestion, TCP flows continually lower their transmission rates, potentially giving up their bandwidth to UDP flows that are oblivious to drops. This effect is called TCP starvation/UDP dominance. 
TCP starvation/UDP dominance likely occurs if (TCP-based) Mission-Critical Data is assigned to the same service-provider class as (UDP-based) Streaming-Video and the class experiences sustained congestion. Even if WRED or other TCP congestion control mechanisms are enabled on the service- provider class, the same behavior would be observed because WRED (for the most part) manages congestion only on TCP-based flows. 
ReferencE. Book/VPNQoS.html

Question 6

Refer to the exhibit. 


While troubleshooting high CPU utilization of a Cisco Catalyst 4500 Series Switch, you notice the error message that is shown in the exhibit in the log file. 
What can be the cause of this issue, and how can it be prevented?

  • A: The hardware routing table is full. Redistribute from BGP into IGP.
  • B: The software routing table is full. Redistribute from BGP into IGP.
  • C: The hardware routing table is full. Reduce the number of routes in the routing table.
  • D: The software routing table is full. Reduce the number of routes in the routing table.

Correct Answer: C

Error Message C4K_L3HWFORWARDING-2-FWDCAMFULL:L3 routing table is full. Switching to software forwarding.
The hardware routing table is full; forwarding takes place in the software instead. The switch performance might be degraded. 
Recommended Action Reduce the size of the routing table. Enter the ip cef command to return to hardware forwarding. 
ReferencE. 2/31sg/system/message/message/emsg.html

Question 7

What is the cause of ignores and overruns on an interface, when the overall traffic rate of the interface is low?

  • A: a hardware failure of the interface
  • B: a software bug
  • C: a bad cable
  • D: microbursts of traffic

Correct Answer: D

Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. Symptoms of micro bursts will manifest in the form of ignores and/ or overruns (also shown as accumulated in "input error" counter within show interface output). This is indicative of receive ring and corresponding packet buffer being overwhelmed due to data bursts coming in over extremely short period of time (microseconds). You will never see a sustained data traffic within show interface's "input rate" counter as they are averaging bits per second (bps) over 5 minutes by default (way too long to account for microbursts). You can understand microbursts from a scenario where a 3-lane highway merging into a single lane at rush hour  the capacity burst cannot exceed the total available bandwidth (i.e. single lane), but it can saturate it for a period of time. 

Question 8

Refer to the exhibit. 


Which statement about the debug behavior of the device is true?

  • A: The device debugs all IP events for
  • B: The device sends all debugging information for
  • C: The device sends only NTP debugging information to
  • D: The device sends debugging information every five seconds.

Correct Answer: A

This is an example of a conditional debug, where there is a single condition specified of IP address so all IP events for that address will be output in the debug.

Question 9

Which statement about MSS is true?

  • A: It is negotiated between sender and receiver.
  • B: It is sent in all TCP packets.
  • C: It is 20 bytes lower than MTU by default.
  • D: It is sent in SYN packets.
  • E: It is 28 bytes lower than MTU by default.

Correct Answer: D

The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the Options field of the TCP header that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment. It does not count the TCP header or the IP header. The IP datagram containing a TCP segment may be self-contained within a single packet, or it may be reconstructed from several fragmented pieces; either way, the MSS limit applies to the total amount of data contained in the final, reconstructed TCP segment. 
The default TCP Maximum Segment Size is 536. Where a host wishes to set the maximum segment size to a value other than the default, the maximum segment size is specified as a TCP option, initially in the TCP SYN packet during the TCP handshake. The value cannot be changed after the connection is established. 

Question 10

Which two methods change the IP MTU value for an interface? (Choose two.)

  • A: Configure the default MTU.
  • B: Configure the IP system MTU.
  • C: Configure the interface MTU.
  • D: Configure the interface IP MTU.

Correct Answer: CD

An IOS device configured for IP+MPLS routing uses three different Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) values: The hardware MTU configured with the mtu interface configuration command The hardware MTU specifies the maximum packet length the interface can support ... or at least that's the theory behind it. In reality, longer packets can be sent (assuming the hardware interface chipset doesn't complain); therefore you can configure MPLS MTU to be larger than the interface MTU and still have a working network. Oversized packets might not be received correctly if the interface uses fixed-length buffers; platforms with scatter/gather architecture (also called particle buffers) usually survive incoming oversized packets.
IP MTU is used to determine whether am IP packet forwarded through an interface has to be fragmented. It has to be lower or equal to hardware MTU (and this limitation is enforced). If it equals the HW MTU, its value does not appear in the running configuration and it tracks the changes in HW MTU. For example, if you configure ip mtu 1300 on a Serial interface, it will appear in the running configuration as long as the hardware MTU is not equal to 1300 (and will not change as the HW MTU changes). However, as soon as the mtu 1300 is configured, the ip mtu 1300 command disappears from the configuration and the IP MTU yet again tracks the HW MTU. ReferencE.





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